Crotone is a city located on the Ionic coast of Calabria's and it is one of the five provinces of the Region. This city has 60.673 of inhabitants. Its foundation happened in the VIII century BC following orders from the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi by Achaean colonists who attributed the name Kroton to an autochthonous civilization.
The place-name Crotone comes from Kroton, the name of the Achaean colony. The hypotheses about the origin of the place-name are different: the most reliable ones testify that Kroton comes from the Greek world that represents the castor-plant or the clay, because of th enature of its soil.
The town of Crotone has existed since ancient Greek times. In the High Middle Ages, the territory assumed the name of Marquisate of Crotone, which held until the present day. The boundaries stretch from the Tacina to the South, bordering on the Province of Catanzaro, to the River Nicà to the North, bordering on the Province of Cosenza. The most important River is the Neto, whose mouth declared a conservation zone. The coastline stretching for some kilometers is notable for its morphological variability: starting from the north, there are white siliceous sandy beaches alternating with reddish-ochre sandstone sandy ones.
The laciniated promontory of Capo Colonna is famous, where the remains can be seen of the large sacred area around the temple dedicated to Hera it was the beacon of civilization and culture for the whole Mediterranean. The remains of the “temenos” (the defensive wall) are imposing, one of the 48 temple columns still stands and there are remains of buildings and Roman villas. The archeological park being set up allows visits even by nicht, on foot, following the sacred way like the ancient Greeks. Moreover, the coast is important for naturalistic reasons: in fact, it has a marine reserve involving the sea of Crotone, Cutro and Isola Capo Rizzuto. The plentiful submerged rock has led to the formation of interesting madrepore formations that remind the observer of coral beds from tropical seas.
The most important period for the development of the city was the Greek colonization, its area was still active since the period of the indigenous culture and the commerce through the obsidian’s way. The historical date of the foundation of Crotone is 709 and all of the antiquaries are agree that it has been founded by Miscello di Ripe who founded it at the mouth of the River Esaro.
The city grew in power during the fifteen-century; with the medical school created by Alcmeone and Democede; with the philosophical school created by Pythagoras; with the strength of its athletes, such as Milone who won a lot of Olympiads.
During the Roman period, with the coming of Pirro and Hannibal, the city declined hopeless and reduced its area, according to the attestations of Tito Livio and Petronio.
During the Middle Age, because of the lasting barbaric invasions, the city reduced its area more and more to the only hill on which exists today the historical centre.
Till the fourteen-century the city belongs to the family Ruffo di Calabria who attributed to it the name of Marquisate with whom is still represented today.
In 1531 Crotone becomes estate of the Regio Demanio, and Carlo V, who wanted to retrench the coast, built the new defensive walls and the Castle.
After the Unity of Italy the city had a great transformation e development, bound with the port and the electric energy which improves the establishment of industrial complex, now dismantled.